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But I fear that yet another circular is not going to change this tenacious practice. Back in and again in a circular from the ministry of the interior stated that "Madame" should be the equivalent of "Monsieur". But things have only got worse with the internet. If you don't fill in the marital status box, you cannot submit forms, because these are "required fields". It happens with my taxes, social security and all kinds of bookings, especially for the Eurostar On the English form I can tick "Ms" and no one pesters me about my private life. A "Madame" is also of course a brothel keeper: leaving us in no doubt that "Mademoiselle" refers first of all to a sexual state: being a virgin.

It is this aspect that the two feminist groups who campaigned for the change have been protesting about. The same intrusiveness applies to your name. When a Frenchwoman gets married, there is no legal obligation for her to take her husband's name. But most state organisations automatically change her surname. The infuriating "maiden name" box appears on the vast majority of administrative forms, payslips, invoices, medical records and even online shopping services.

Some men helped women's status through their works. She examines the spread of birth control methods and the history of abortion.

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Beauvoir provides a presentation about the "everlasting disappointment" of women, [25] for the most part from a male heterosexual's point of view. She covers female menstruation , virginity , and female sexuality including copulation , marriage , motherhood , and prostitution. To illustrate man's experience of the "horror of feminine fertility", Beauvoir quotes the British Medical Journal of in which a member of the British Medical Association writes, "It is an indisputable fact that meat goes bad when touched by menstruating women. Examining the work of Henry de Montherlant , D.

Beauvoir writes that "mystery" is prominent among men's myths about women. Presenting a child's life beginning with birth, [37] Beauvoir contrasts a girl's upbringing with a boy's, who at age 3 or 4 is told he is a "little man". Beauvoir writes that "to ask two spouses bound by practical, social and moral ties to satisfy each other sexually for their whole lives is pure absurdity".

In Beauvoir's view, abortions performed legally by doctors would have little risk to the mother. In this new creation of a new life the woman loses her self, seeing herself as "no longer anything Beauvoir describes a woman's clothes, her girl friends and her relationships with men.

In contrast to prostitutes, hetaeras can gain recognition as an individual and if successful can aim higher and be publicly distinguished. When she agrees to grow old she becomes elderly with half of her adult life left to live. According to Beauvoir, while a woman knows how to be as active, effective and silent as a man, [71] her situation keeps her being useful , preparing food, clothes, and lodging. She protests but doesn't escape her lot.

Beauvoir describes narcissistic women, who might find themselves in a mirror and in the theater , [75] and women in and outside marriage: "The day when it will be possible for the woman to love in her strength and not in her weakness, not to escape from herself but to find herself, not out of resignation but to affirm herself, love will become for her as for man the source of life and not a mortal danger. Beauvoir then says that women don't "challenge the human condition" and that in comparison to the few "greats", a woman comes out as "mediocre" and will continue at that level for quite some time.

Beauvoir thinks that perhaps, of all women, only Saint Teresa lived her life for herself. In her conclusion, Beauvoir looks forward to a future when women and men are equals, something the " Soviet revolution promised " but did not ever deliver. The first French publication of The Second Sex sold around 22, copies in a week.

The philosopher Judith Butler writes that Beauvoir's formulation that "One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman" distinguishes the terms "sex" and "gender". Borde and Malovany-Chevalier, in their complete English version, translated this formulation as "One is not born, but rather becomes, woman" because in this context one of many different usages of "woman" in the book , the word is used by Beauvoir to mean woman as a construct or an idea, rather than woman as an individual or one of a group.

Butler writes that the book suggests that "gender" is an aspect of identity which is "gradually acquired". Butler sees The Second Sex as potentially providing a radical understanding of gender.


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The biographer Deirdre Bair , writing in her "Introduction to the Vintage Edition" in , relates that "one of the most sustained criticisms" has been that Beauvoir is "guilty of unconscious misogyny", that she separated herself from women while writing about them. Radford's view that Beauvoir was "guilty of painting women in her own colors" because The Second Sex is "primarily a middle-class document, so distorted by autobiographical influences that the individual problems of the writer herself may assume an exaggerated importance in her discussion of femininity.

The classical scholar David M. Halperin writes that Beauvoir gives an idealized account of sexual relations between women in The Second Sex , suggesting that they reveal with particular clarity the mutuality of erotic responsiveness that characterizes women's eroticism. Even though The Second Sex was published in and Feminine Mystique was published in , the French were concerned that expanding equality to include matters of the family was detrimental to French morals.

In , abortion in Europe was still illegal and contraception was extremely difficult to access. The historical context of the times was a belief that "a society cut to the measure of men ill served women and harmed the overall interests of society". Parshley , frequently reissued, is poor. Knopf, Inc and although the publishers had been made aware of the problems with the English text, they long stated that there was really no need for a new translation, [] even though Beauvoir herself explicitly requested one in a interview: "I would like very much for another translation of The Second Sex to be done, one that is much more faithful; more complete and more faithful.

The publishers gave in to those requests, and commissioned a new translation to Constance Borde and Sheila Malovany-Chevalier. In , Jeanne-Paule Sicard was the first female chief of staff, but was called "Mr.

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Pleven 's then Minister of Defence secretary. However, the new role granted to the President of the Republic in the semi-presidential regime of the Fifth Republic after the referendum on the election of the President at direct universal suffrage , led to a greater role of the "First Lady of France". Although Charles de Gaulle 's wife Yvonne remained out of the public sphere, the image of Claude Pompidou would interest the media more and more.

Of the 27 cabinets formed during the Fourth Republic , only four included women, and never more than one at a time. However, she remained in office for only seven months. The next woman to hold government office, Germaine Poinso-Chapuis , was health and education minister from 24 November to 19 July in Robert Schuman 's cabinet.

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Remaining one year in office, her name remained attached to a decree financing private education. Published in the Journal officiel on 22 May with her signature, the decree had been drafted in her absence at the Council of Ministers of France. The Communist and the Radical-Socialist Party called for the repealing of the decree, and finally, Schuman's cabinet was overturned after failing a confidence motion on the subject.

Nafissa Sid Cara then participated in the government as undersecretary in charge of Algeria from till the end of the war in Marie-Madeleine Dienesch , who evolved from Christian-Democracy to Gaullism in , occupied various offices as undersecretary between and In total, only seven women acceded to governmental offices between and , and only one as minister.

Of the first eleven cabinets of the Fifth Republic , four did not count any women. In May , the cabinet was exclusively male. This low representation of women was not, however, specific to France: West Germany 's government did not include any women in any office from to , and in —, only 12 countries in the world had female ministers. The British government had exclusively male ministers. At the end of the s, France was one of the leading countries in the world with respect to the number of female ministers, just behind Sweden.

However, they remained highly under-represented in the National Assembly. There were only 14 female deputies 1. Janine Alexandre-Derbay , year-old senator of the Republican Party PR , initiated a hunger strike to protest against the complete absence of women on the governmental majority's electoral lists in Paris. Although the far-left remained indifferent to the feminisation of power, in , Arlette Laguiller became the first woman to present herself at a presidential election for the Trotskyist party Workers' Struggle , LO , and integrated feminist propositions in her party.

The sociologist Mariette Sineau underlined that Giscard included women only in the low-levels of the governmental hierarchy state secretaries and kept them in socio-educative affairs. Seven women in eighteen from to had offices related to youth and education, and four including two ministers had offices related to health, reflecting a traditional gender division.

Only six women in eighteen had been elected through universal suffrage. The rest were nominated by the Prime Minister. Left and right-wing female ministers signed the Manifeste des 10 in for equal representation of women in politics. Joan Scott, a professor at the Institute for Advanced Study , stated: "There is a longstanding commitment to the notion that the French do gender relations differently — especially from prudish Americans — and that has to do with the French understanding of seduction. Seduction is the alternative to thinking about [sexual harassment] as sexual harassment.

In , following a case where a man had tortured and raped his wife, the Court of Cassation authorized prosecution of spouses for rape or sexual assault. In , the Court of Cassation convicted a man of the rape of his wife, stating that the presumption that spouses have consented to sexual acts that occur within marriage is only valid when the contrary is not proven. Sexual harassment in the workplace was made subject to legal sanction in France starting only in The reach of those laws was not matched by vigorous enforcement, labor lawyers say.

The law also declared that sex between an adult and a person of 15 or under can be considered rape if the younger person is judged incompetent to give consent. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. History of the feminist movement in France. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US.

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Family, Gender, and Law in Early Modern France Edited by Suzanne Desan and Jeffrey Merrick

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Further information: First-wave feminism. Further information: Paris Commune. Further information: Second-wave feminism. Further information: May events in France. Retrieved 27 September Archived from the original on 11 May