The character in the center is an amalgam of components, each representing a particular linguistic sound; put together, the components represent a syllable inexpressible using existing Chinese characters. However, we should not conclude that his work was any less sophisticated than that of his European counterparts.
London: J. I argue that cosmological methods, and the debates they inspired, were a major source of innovation in phonological scholarship during the late Ming. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century scholars strove to document the scope of possible sounds existing in the universe. Realizing the Chinese script was insufficient to fully record them, they explored new notation systems to comprehensively describe sound.
From that point forward, its growth is restricted by the pot environment. Throughout the year, the bonsai is shaped to limit growth, redistribute foliar vigor to areas requiring further development, and meet the artist's detailed design. The practice of bonsai is sometimes confused with dwarfing , but dwarfing generally refers to research, discovery, or creation of plants that are permanent, genetic miniatures of existing species.
Plant dwarfing often uses selective breeding or genetic engineering to create dwarf cultivars.
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Bonsai does not require genetically dwarfed trees, but rather depends on growing small trees from regular stock and seeds. Bonsai uses cultivation techniques like pruning, root reduction, potting, defoliation, and grafting to produce small trees that mimic the shape and style of mature, full-size trees. The Japanese art of bonsai originated from the Chinese practice of penjing.
They brought back many Chinese ideas and goods, including container plantings. In the medieval period, recognizable bonsai were portrayed in handscroll paintings like the Ippen shonin eden Wooden tray and dish-like pots with dwarf landscapes on modern-looking wooden shelves also appear in the Kasuga-gongen-genki scroll.
In , dwarf trees displayed on short poles were portrayed in the Boki Ekotoba scroll. A close relationship between Japan's Zen Buddhism and the potted trees began to shape bonsai reputation and esthetics. One of the monks' activities was to introduce political leaders to various arts of miniature landscapes as admirable accomplishments for men of taste and learning.
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Japanese artists eventually adopted a simpler style for bonsai, increasing focus on the tree by removing miniatures and other decorations, and using smaller, plainer pots. The monk is a disguised official who later rewards the samurai for his actions. In later centuries, woodblock prints by several artists depicted this popular drama. There was even a fabric design of the same name.lazofyceguke.ga
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Through these and other popular media, bonsai became known to a broad Japanese population. Bonsai cultivation reached a high level of expertise in this period. Bonsai dating to the 17th century have survived to the present. One of the oldest-known living bonsai trees, considered one of the National Treasures of Japan , can be seen in the Tokyo Imperial Palace collection. By the end of the 18th century, bonsai cultivation in Japan was becoming widespread and began to interest the general public. In the Tenmei era —88 , an exhibit of traditional dwarf potted pines began to be held every year in Kyoto.
Connoisseurs from five provinces and neighboring areas would bring one or two plants each to the show in order to submit them to visitors for ranking.
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In Japan after , bonsai began to move from being the esoteric practice of a few specialists to becoming a widely popular art form and hobby. This word connoted a shallow container, not a deeper bowl style. The popularity of bonsai began to grow outside the limited scope of scholars and the nobility. On October 13, , the Meiji Emperor moved to his new capital in Tokyo.
Bonsai were displayed both inside and outside Meiji Palace, and those placed in the grand setting of the Imperial Palace had to be "Giant Bonsai", large enough to fill the grand space. New books, magazines, and public exhibitions made bonsai more accessible to the Japanese populace. An Artistic Bonsai Concours was held in Tokyo in , followed by publication of a three-volume commemorative picture book. This event demonstrated a new tendency to see bonsai as an independent art form. Bonsai shaping aesthetics, techniques, and tools became increasingly sophisticated as bonsai's popularity grew in Japan.
In , shaping with wire rather than the older string, rope, and burlap techniques, appeared in the Sanyu-en Bonsai-Dan History of Bonsai in the Sanyu nursery. Zinc-galvanized steel wire was initially used. Expensive copper wire was used only for selected trees that had real potential. Properly treated, this indentation would fill over with live tree tissue and bark over time, greatly reducing or eliminating the usual pruning scar. Prior to World War II , international interest in bonsai was fueled by increased trade in trees and the appearance of books in popular foreign languages.
By , the first national annual bonsai show was held an event repeated annually through in Tokyo's Hibiya Park. By , about bonsai dealers worked in Tokyo.
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Some species of trees were being cultivated, and thousands of specimens annually were shipped to Europe and America. The first bonsai nurseries and clubs in the Americas were started by first and second-generation Japanese immigrants. Though this progress to international markets and enthusiasts was interrupted by the war, bonsai had by the s become an art form of international interest and involvement. Following World War II, a number of trends made the Japanese tradition of bonsai increasingly accessible to Western and world audiences.
One key trend was the increase in the number, scope, and prominence of bonsai exhibitions. For example, the Kokufu-ten bonsai displays reappeared in after a four-year cancellation and became annual affairs. These displays continue to this day, and are by invitation only for eight days in February. A large display of bonsai and suiseki was held as part of Expo '70 , and formal discussion was made of an international association of enthusiasts. So was the first Sakufu-ten Creative Bonsai Exhibit , the only event in which professional bonsai growers exhibit traditional trees under their own names rather than under the name of the owner.
These conventions attracted several hundreds of participants from dozens of countries and have since been held every four years at different locations around the globe: , Orlando, Florida ; , Seoul, Korea ; , Munich, Germany ; , Washington, D. Another key trend was the increase in books on bonsai and related arts, now being published for the first time in English and other languages for audiences outside Japan.
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In , Yuji Yoshimura , son of a Japanese bonsai community leader, collaborated with German diplomat and author Alfred Koehn to give bonsai demonstrations. Koehn had been an enthusiast before the war, and his book Japanese Tray Landscapes had been published in English in Peking. Halford, went on to be called the "classic Japanese bonsai bible for westerners" with over thirty printings. The related art of saikei was introduced to English-speaking audiences in in Kawamoto and Kurihara's book Bonsai-Saikei. This book described tray landscapes made with younger plant material than was traditionally used in bonsai, providing an alternative to the use of large, older plants, few of which had escaped war damage.
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A third trend was the increasing availability of expert bonsai training, at first only in Japan and then more widely. Returning to the U. Other groups and individuals from outside Asia then visited and studied at the various Japanese nurseries, occasionally even apprenticing under the masters. These visitors brought back to their local clubs the latest techniques and styles, which were then further disseminated. Japanese teachers also traveled widely, bringing hands-on bonsai expertise to all six continents . The final trend supporting world involvement in bonsai is the widening availability of specialized bonsai plant stock, soil components, tools, pots, and other accessory items.
Bonsai nurseries in Japan advertise and ship specimen bonsai worldwide. Most countries have local nurseries providing plant stock as well. Japanese bonsai soil components, such as Akadama clay, are available worldwide, and suppliers also provide similar local materials in many locations. Specialized bonsai tools are widely available from Japanese and Chinese sources.
Potters around the globe provide material to hobbyists and specialists in many countries. Bonsai has now reached a worldwide audience. There are over twelve hundred books on bonsai and the related arts in at least twenty-six languages available in over ninety countries and territories.
Several score of club newsletters are available on-line, and there are at least that many discussion forums and blogs.